For I cannot imagine how that can be kept up among those that are in all things equal to one another. Between its horns the sea comes in eleven miles broad, and spreads itself into a great bay, which is environed with land to the compass of about five hundred miles, and is well secured from winds. Every significant idea the Romans and Egyptians had the Utopians learned. And maybe Europeans are smarter, but the Utopians are super enthusiastic and self-disciplined. He lived there for five years and was so happy, he only left to tell the rest of the world about what a great country it is. He spoke both gracefully and weightily; he was eminently skilled in the law, had a vast understanding, and a prodigious memory; and those excellent talents with which nature had furnished him were improved by study and experience.
If you do not find a remedy to these evils, it is a vain thing to boast of your severity in punishing theft, which though it may have the appearance of justice, yet in itself is neither just nor convenient. To this he answered that it could never take place in England without endangering the whole nation. When they want anything in the country which it does not produce, they fetch that from the town, without carrying anything in exchange for it. Hythloday now turns to how Utopians interact with one another. I might have contracted it, but I resolved to give it to you at large, that you might observe how those that despised what I had proposed, no sooner perceived that the cardinal did not dislike it, but presently approved of it, fawned so on him, and flattered him to such a degree, that they in good earnest applauded those things that he only liked in jest.
How can it, when all the worst people get all the best stuff? But it were too long to dwell on all that he told us he had observed in every place, it would be too great a digression from our present purpose: whatever is necessary to be told, concerning those wise and prudent institutions which he observed among civilized nations, may perhaps be related by us on a more proper occasion. Instead, it's just owned by a handful of lazy, rich people who kick out the local farmers and do whatever they want with it. These husbandmen till the ground, breed cattle, hew wood, and convey it to the towns, either by land or water, as is most convenient. Similarly, the criticism of lawyers comes from a writer who, as , was arguably the most influential lawyer in England. But this hard labor isn't in chains or anything, they just have to be involved in a project that helps the public. And his neighbours, who at first laughed at the folly of the undertaking, no sooner saw it brought to perfection than they were struck with admiration and terror.
Or do you propose any other punishment that will be more useful to the public? Nor is there any hazard of their falling back to their old customs: and so little do travellers apprehend mischief from them, that they generally make use of them for guides, from one jurisdiction to another; for there is nothing left them by which they can rob, or be the better for it, since, as they are disarmed, so the very having of money is a sufficient conviction: and as they are certainly punished if discovered, so they cannot hope to escape; for their habit being in all the parts of it different from what is commonly worn, they cannot fly away, unless they would go naked, and even then their cropped ear would betray them. Much like the island of Utopia, Raphael is a piece of fiction inserted in the real world. He uncovers a plot by malcontent demons to usurp his rule of China. The teachings of Christ would have implanted the system of the Utopians in every civilized nation if it were not for pride. In any case, as so often happens, a trivial quarrel puts an end to intellectual exchange here. If people come to be pinched with want, and yet cannot dispose of anything as their own, what can follow upon this but perpetual sedition and bloodshed, especially when the reverence and authority due to magistrates falls to the ground? Second half of the book describes perfect Utopian society.
He points out that the Romans punished thieves and other criminals by forcing them to serve the public good in stone quarries and mines. After those civilities were past which are usual with strangers upon their first meeting, we all went to my house, and entering into the garden, sat down on a green bank and entertained one another in discourse. People steal when they're desperate, not because they're cunning master criminals. We must read through nearly half of Utopia before we reach the full description of the island. These laws, I say, might have such effect as good diet and care might have on a sick man whose recovery is desperate; they might allay and mitigate the disease, but it could never be quite healed, nor the body politic be brought again to a good habit as long as property remains; and it will fall out, as in a complication of diseases, that by applying a remedy to one sore you will provoke another, and that which removes the one ill symptom produces others, while the strengthening one part of the body weakens the rest. Thus the society Raphael proposes is the ideal More would want. The story about the Achorians is like Utopia in miniature: both are cautionary models for good governance.
I loved book 1 and am excited for what book2 will offer. To this I would add that after all those warlike attempts, the vast confusions, and the consumption both of treasure and of people that must follow them, perhaps upon some misfortune they might be forced to throw up all at last; therefore it seemed much more eligible that the king should improve his ancient kingdom all he could, and make it flourish as much as possible; that he should love his people, and be beloved of them; that he should live among them, govern them gently and let other kingdoms alone, since that which had fallen to his share was big enough, if not too big, for him:- pray, how do you think would such a speech as this be heard? The friar insists he isn't angry at all in a very angry way! The more imaginative Hythloday understands the army to be an even greater evil than the problem it supposedly solves. Mary, Giles introduces Thomas More to Raphael Hythloday. There are dreadful punishments enacted against thieves, but it were much better to make such good provisions by which every man might be put in a method how to live, and so be preserved from the fatal necessity of stealing and of dying for it. They have belonging to every town four hospitals, that are built without their walls, and are so large that they may pass for little towns; by this means, if they had ever such a number of sick persons, they could lodge them conveniently, and at such a distance that such of them as are sick of infectious diseases may be kept so far from the rest that there can be no danger of contagion.
The government provides no avenue of opportunity for these veterans. Under such conditions the ordinary causes for competition among individuals do not exist, and as a consequence the motivation for many crimes associated with rivalry and greed is effectively eradicated. He was virtuous, wise, always made sure people were honest, fair, gave great speeches, knew everything. There are no taverns, no alehouses, nor stews among them, nor any other occasions of corrupting each other, of getting into corners, or forming themselves into parties; all men live in full view, so that all are obliged both to perform their ordinary task and to employ themselves well in their spare hours; and it is certain that a people thus ordered must live in great abundance of all things, and these being equally distributed among them, no man can want or be obliged to beg. Now what if, after all these propositions were made, I should rise up and assert that such counsels were both unbecoming a king and mischievous to him; and that not only his honour, but his safety, consisted more in his people's wealth than in his own; if I should show that they choose a king for their own sake, and not for his; that, by his care and endeavours, they may be both easy and safe; and that, therefore, a prince ought to take more care of his people's happiness than of his own, as a shepherd is to take more care of his flock than of himself? No one is prohibited from fetching more food out of the market and bringing it to his own house.
Gambling, hunting, makeup and astrology are all discouraged in Utopia. Now, when the stomachs of those that are thus turned out of doors grow keen, they rob no less keenly; and what else can they do? You ought rather to cast about and to manage things with all the dexterity in your power, so that if you are not able to make them go well they may be as little ill as possible; for except all men were good everything cannot be right, and that is a blessing that I do not at present hope to see. To accomplish this, he ordered a deep channel to be dug fifteen miles long; and that the natives might not think he treated them like slaves, he not only forced the inhabitants, but also his own soldiers, to labor in carrying it on. According to Raphael, the equatorial regions are excessively hot and there are monsters in the New World. I went to go read it again and it disappeared!!! All his fellow counselors would propose cunning ways of winning battles, forging alliances, holding old territory, and gaining new territory. One shepherd can look after a flock, which will stock an extent of ground that would require many hands if it were to be ploughed and reaped. The problem with that idea is that he'd just turn into to those pandering councilors he's been trying to avoid.
All the counselors agree on one thing: as the rich Roman Crassus says, a prince who must maintain an army can never have enough gold, and a prince can never do an injustice, because all men are his already. Inhabitants are sent by turns from the cities to dwell in them; no country family has fewer than forty men and women in it, besides two slaves. By this means there is always some piece of work or other to be done by them; and, besides their livelihood, they earn somewhat still to the public. And remember, when he was writing Utopia, Christianity was the accepted and standard religious code, so he would have expect his readers to all believe in the Christian God, too. He also thought that it was a good provision for that free circulation of money so necessary for the course of commerce and exchange. This would serve two ends, both of them acceptable to many; for as those whose avarice led them to transgress would be severely fined, so the selling licences dear would look as if a prince were tender of his people, and would not easily, or at low rates, dispense with anything that might be against the public good.