The extent to which the naval race was one of the chief factors in Britain's decision to join the remains a key controversy. The testing of the Entente, 1904-6 -- v. M-A-I-N The M-A-I-N acronym is often used to analyse the war — militarism, alliances, imperialism and nationalism. Berliner Gesellschaft für Faschismus und Weltkriegsforschung. It was a war between the Allied Powers, which were France, Russia, Britain, Italy and the United States, and the Central Powers, which were Germany, Austria Hungary and the Ottoman Empire. See this book by David Fromkin :.
Then Japan entered the war. A stressor is stimulus that causes stress and stress can be caused by both good and bad experiences. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated in Sarajevo. The Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph was aged 84, so the assassination of his heir, so soon before he was likely to hand over the crown, was seen as a direct challenge to Austrian polity. This assurance was confirmed in the week following the assassination, before William, on July 6, set off upon his annual cruise to the , off. Levy, Jack; Goertz, Gary, eds. But it was assassination in Sarajevo that triggered World War 1.
They also felt to be a great, superior power they must obtain many colonies. This only added fuel to the paranoia among European leaders, encouraging them to become the forerunners in one of the most blatant arms races in history. World War 1 was triggered by the death of Austria-Hungary's Archduke Franz Ferdinand, killed by a Serbian terrorist of the Black Hand organization, a Serbian nationalist secret society. The Russians came in to help the Serbians and the other alliances came in for a full-fledged world war. However, this was thought even more unlikely since the Russians had not yet finished their French-funded rearmament programme scheduled for completion in 1917. France was then drawn in against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Questions like who mobilized first or declared war first aren't very relevant.
Germany was the First Great Power to declare war on another. Gooch, Before the war: studies in diplomacy 1936 , chapter on Delcassé pp 87-186. In many ways, the definitive origin of world war 1 took a serious shape when the Balkan war broke out and the conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary began to mold into an inescapable war. On the contrary, Sazonov had aligned himself with the irredentism and expected the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian empire. Alliances and Politics In the years leading up to the war, the nations of Europe were constantly jockeying for power and making alliances.
The Anglo-Russian rapprochment, 1903-7 -- v. Such strong numbers stared at the face of Germany and Austria-Hungary, both of them terrified of the exponential growth of a potential and powerful enemy. It is accepted that Russia was provocative with the order for partial mobilization on 31 July and this was the background to Germany's war declaration. Home from his cruise on July 27, William learned on July 28 how Serbia had replied to the ultimatum. The last years of peace—v.
In 1914, however, the African scene was peaceful. Nikola Pašić, the Serbian prime minister and an enemy of Apis, heard of the plot and warned the Austrian government of it, but his message was too cautiously worded to be understood. Bismarck supported French colonization in Africa because it diverted government attention and resources away from Continental Europe and revanchism after 1870. United Kingdom: University Printing House. The détente was driven by Britain's desire for imperial security in relation to France in North Africa and to Russia in Persia and India. Though Bosnia and Herzegovina were still nominally under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary had administered the provinces since the in 1878, when the great powers of Europe awarded it the right to occupy the two provinces, with the legal title to remain with Turkey. The theory encouraged all belligerents to devise war plans to strike first to gain the advantage.
Militarism caused Germany, Japan, and Italy to build powerful armies, navies, and airforces. Other important long-term or structural factors that are often studied include unresolved , the perceived breakdown of the in Europe, convoluted and fragmented , the of the previous decades, and. France was looking set to conquer Iraq and Syria. But again, Europe had witnessed a number of high-profile assassinations in the preceding years — a chain of assassinations that had shocked everyone alike, but none of them had led to a major inevitable crisis. Militarism factored into World War I as well.
The aim of Weltpolitik was ostensibly to transform Germany into a global power through assertive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies and the development of a large navy. The meeting was called behind the backs of the politicians. Austria-Hungary declared war against Russia on August 5; Serbia against Germany on August 6; against Austria-Hungary on August 7 and against Germany on August 12; France and Great Britain against Austria-Hungary on August 10 and on August 12, respectively; against Germany on August 23; Austria-Hungary against Japan on August 25 and against Belgium on August 28. At the end of 1911 and particularly during the Balkan wars themselves in 1912—13, the French view changed. It was one of the worst wars of its time and had a huge effect on the people of the world.
Both governments promised that they should help or remain neutral when other powerful countries such as Russia or France attack. So who was really responsible for the outbreak of World War 1? The Austrians remained fixated on Serbia but did not decide on their precise objectives other than war. In 1879, Germany and Austria-Hungary signed the Dual Alliance, which was planned as a merely defensive arrangement or military alliance. But then again, both Russia and Germany had further alliances with other European nations — increasing the roster of the eventual participants in the conflict which eventually took shape in a full-fledged war in Europe. Moreover, France clearly stated that if, as a result of a conflict in the Balkans, war were to break out between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, France would stand by Russia. Nationalism made war a competition between peoples, nations or races rather than kings and elites.